Tag: home security

openHAB – Motion Detection With Zoneminder Via SQL Triggers

We had used ZoneMinder filters to run a script which turned a “motion detected” switch on and off in openHAB. We had turned that off in favor of an openHAB/ZoneMinder binding, but polling ZoneMinder for motion events added a lot of load to the system. We tried re-enabling the filters we’d used previously, and they didn’t work. There are a lot of caveats around using filters (tl;dr: filtering can be delayed by several minutes, which renders ‘now’ filters ineffective) and more recent versions of ZoneMinder don’t have a number of alarm frames until after the event (which means filtering on alarm frames > 1 only detects motion after the fact). All of this means that the filters which worked pretty well a year or two ago no longer work reliably.

Architecturally, the ZoneMinder filter process seemed ill suited for our needs. Actions that are not time sensitive, like file cleanup or roll-up reporting, could be done through a filter. But it’s not a good solution for identifying the FexEx guy in the driveway. I decided to try a SQL TRIGGER (well, two triggers). Doing so required getting a UDF for sys_exec set up. To do so, I cloned lib_mysqludf_sys. The Makefile needs to be edited — LIBDIR needs to be updated with the appropriate directory for the MariaDB installation (/usr/lib64/mariadb/plugin/ in my case). I also needed to modify the install compile line to:

gcc -fPIC -Wall -I/usr/include/mysql/server -I. -shared lib_mysqludf_sys.c -o $(LIBDIR)/lib_mysqludf_sys.so

Running install.sh then installed and registered the UDF in my MariaDB server. The CLI SQL client can be used to verify sys_exec is working:

MariaDB [zm]> SELECT sys_exec('cat /etc/fedora-release');
+-------------------------------------+
| sys_exec('cat /etc/fedora-release') |
+-------------------------------------+
| 0 |
+-------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.012 sec)

And finally, we can create the triggers to detect motion:

-- SHOW TRIGGERS
-- DROP TRIGGER zm.TriggerMotionOnNewEvent;
DELIMITER @@

CREATE TRIGGER TriggerMotionOnNewEvent
AFTER INSERT ON `Events`
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN

DECLARE strCommand CHAR(255);
DECLARE strCameraName CHAR(64);
DECLARE iCameraID INT(10);
DECLARE iResult INT(10);
-- variables for local openHAB REST API hostname and port
DECLARE strOpenHABHost CHAR(64);
SET strOpenHABHost='http://openhabhost.example.com:8080';


-- Translate ZoneMinder IP camera ID with openHAB item name
SET iCameraID = NEW.monitorID;
IF(iCameraID = 10) THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam05_Alarm';
ELSEIF(iCameraID = 11) THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam03_Alarm';
ELSEIF(iCameraID = 12) THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam04_Alarm';
ELSEIF(iCameraID = 13) THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam01_Alarm';
ELSEIF(iCameraID = 14) THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam02_Alarm';
END IF;

SET strCommand=CONCAT('/usr/bin/curl ', '-s --connect-timeout 10 -m 10 -X PUT --header "Content-Type: text/plain" --header "Accept: application/json" -d "ON" "',strOpenHABHost,'/rest/items/',strCameraName,'/state"');
SET iResult = sys_exec(strCommand);
END;
@@
DELIMITER ;

And to clear motion when the event ends:

-- SHOW TRIGGERS
-- DROP TRIGGER zm.ClearMotionOnEventEnd;
DELIMITER @@

CREATE TRIGGER ClearMotionOnEventEnd
AFTER UPDATE ON `Events`
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN

DECLARE strCommand CHAR(255);
DECLARE iResult int(10);
DECLARE strCameraName CHAR(25);
DECLARE iCameraID int(5);
-- variables for local openHAB REST API hostname and port
DECLARE strOpenHABHost CHAR(64);
SET strOpenHABHost='http://openhabhost.example.com:8080';

-- Translate ZoneMinder IP camera ID with openHAB item name
SET iCameraID = NEW.monitorID;
IF iCameraID = 10 THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam05_Alarm';
ELSEIF iCameraID = 11 THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam03_Alarm';
ELSEIF iCameraID = 12 THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam04_Alarm';
ELSEIF iCameraID = 13 THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam01_Alarm';
ELSEIF iCameraID = 14 THEN
SET strCameraName='IPCam02_Alarm';
END IF;

IF NEW.EndTime IS NOT NULL THEN
SET strCommand=CONCAT('/usr/bin/curl ', '-s --connect-timeout 10 -m 10 -X PUT --header "Content-Type: text/plain" --header "Accept: application/json" -d "OFF" "http://',strOpenHABHost,':',iOpenHABPort,'/rest/items/',strCameraName,'/state"');
SET iResult = sys_exec(strCommand);
END IF;

END;
@@
DELIMITER ;

Now when new motion detection events are inserted into the Events database table, the openHAB item corresponding to the camera will be turned on. When the event record is updated with an end timestamp, the openHAB item corresponding to the camera will be turned off.

Home Security Drone

We’ve conceptualized home security drones for some time with autonomous programming that instructs the drones to return to a charging station when their batteries become depleted. Feed the video back to a platform that knows what the area¬†should look like and alert on abnormalities.

The idea of a drone patrol is interesting to me because optimizing the ‘random walk’ algorithm to best suit the implementation is challenging. The algorithm would need to be modified to account for areas that other drones recently visited and allow weighting for ease of ingress (i.e. it’s not likely someone will scale a cliff wall to infiltrate your property. A lot of ‘intrusions’ will come through the driveway). Bonus points for a speaker system that would have the drone direct visitors to the appropriate entrance (please follow me to the front door) — a personal desire because delivery people seem to believe both our garage and our kitchen patio are the front door.

This is a great security solution when it’s unique, but were the idea to be widely adopted … it would suck as a home security implementation. Why? Drones with video feeds sound like a great way to deter trespassing. But drones have practical limitations. Home break-ins would be performed during storms. Or heavy snowfall. Or …

What if the drone charging base has wheels – during adverse weather, the drone can convert itself into an autonomous land vehicle. I’d probably include an additional battery in the base as the wheeled vehicle traversing land would use more energy. And there would be places a wheeled vehicle could not travel. The converted drone would be able to cover some of the property, and generally the area closest to the structures could be traversed.